Christian Krekel

PhD Candidate in Economics

I am a PhD Student at the Paris School of Economics (PSE), a Research Officer at the Centre for Economic Performance (CEP), London School of Economics (LSE), and a Consultant at the World Bank.

My research interests include well-being, health, and behaviour, policy and programme evaluation, and applied microeconometrics, with a particular focus on the non-monetary impacts of major events, infrastructure, and institutions.

Christian Krekel
Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour
Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour
Policy and Programme Evaluation
Policy and Programme Evaluation
Applied Micro­econometrics
Applied Micro­econometrics

Work

Publications

  • 2016
  • The Greener, The Happier? The Effect of Urban Land Use on Residential Well-Being

    Christian Krekel, Jens Kolbe, Henry Wuestemann
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Applied Microeconometrics

    We investigate the effect of urban land use on residential well-being in major German cities, using panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and cross-section data from the European Urban Atlas. We reduce concerns about endogeneity by employing fixed-effects (within) estimators, with individual and city of residence fixed effects, while controlling for a rich set of observables. The results show that access to green urban areas, such as gardens and parks, is positively associated with, whereas access to abandoned areas, such as waste or leftover land, is negatively associated with life satisfaction. The effects are strongest for residents who are older, accounting for up to a third of the size of the effect of being unemployed on life satisfaction. We calculate the marginal willingness-to-pay of residents in order to have access to green urban and abandoned areas in their surroundings, as well as the life-satisfaction maximising amounts of them. Finally, we provide a policy case study, while discussing limitations and avenues for future research.

    Key Words
    JEL Codes
    • Life Satisfaction
    • Urban Land Use
    • Green Urban Areas
    • Forests
    • Waters
    • Abandoned Areas
    • German Socio-Economic Panel
    • European Urban Atlas
    • Monetary Valuation
    • Spatial Analysis
    • C23
    • Q51
    • Q57
    • R20
  • Associations Between Neighborhood Characteristics, Well-Being, and Health Vary Over the Life Course

    Peter Eibich, Christian Krekel, Ilja Demuth, Gert G. Wagner
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour

    Background: Neighborhood characteristics are important determinants of individual health and well-being. For example, characteristics such as noise and pollution affect health directly, while other characteristics affect health and well-being by either providing resources (e.g. social capital in the neighborhood), which individuals can use to cope with health problems, or limiting the use thereof (e.g. crime). This also suggests that there might be age differentials in the impact of these characteristics, since individuals at different stages of life might need different resources. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on age differentials in associations between well-being, health, and neighborhood characteristics. Objective: This paper studies associations between a wide range of neighborhood characteristics with the health and well-being of residents of the greater Berlin area. In particular, we focus on differences in the effects between younger (aged 20-35) and older (aged 60+) residents. Methods: We used data from the Berlin Aging Study II (312 younger and 993 older residents of the Berlin metropolitan area in Germany). We used survey data on health and well-being, combined these with subjective perceptions of the neighborhood, and geo-referenced indicators on the neighborhood, e.g. amenities (public transport, physicians, and hospitals). Results: The results show that access to public transportation is associated with better outcomes on all measures of health and well-being, and social support is associated with higher life satisfaction and better mental health. There are considerable differences between both age groups: while the associations between access to public transport and health and well-being are similar for both age groups, neighborhood social capital shows stronger associations for older residents. However, the difference is not always statistically significant. Conclusion: Having access to services is associated with better health and well-being regardless of age. Local policy makers should focus on lowering barriers to mobility in order to improve the health and well-being of the population. Since the social capital of a neighborhood is associated with better health and well-being among older residents, investments that increase social capital (e.g. community centers) might be warranted in neighborhoods with higher shares of older residents.

    Key Words
    JEL Codes
    • Health
    • Well-Being
    • Neighborhood
    • Neighborhood Amenities
    • Berlin Aging Study II
    • I12
    • I31
    • R41
  • 2015
  • How Natural Disasters Can Affect Environmental Concerns, Risk Aversion, and Even Politics: Evidence from Fukushima and Three European Countries

    Jan Goebel, Christian Krekel, Tim Tiefenbach, Nicolas R. Ziebarth
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Policy and Programme Evaluation Applied Microeconometrics

    We study the impact of the Fukushima disaster on environmental concerns, well-being, risk aversion, and political preferences in Germany, Switzerland, and the UK. In these countries, overall life satisfaction did not significantly decrease, but the disaster significantly increased environmental concerns among Germans. One underlying mechanism likely operated through the perceived risk of a similar meltdown of domestic reactors. After Fukushima, more Germans considered themselves as “very risk averse”. However, drastic German policy action shut down the oldest reactors, implemented the phaseout of the remaining ones, and proclaimed the transition to renewables. This shift in energy policy contributed to the subsequent decrease in environmental concerns, particularly among women, Green party supporters, and people living in close distance to the oldest reactors. In Germany, political support for the Greens increased significantly, whereas in Switzerland and the UK, this increase was limited to people living close to reactors.

    Key Words
    JEL Codes
    • Fukushima
    • Nuclear Phaseout
    • Environmental Concerns
    • Well-Being
    • Risk Aversion
    • Green Party
    • I18
    • I31
    • Q54

Working Papers

  • 2016
  • Does the Presence of Wind Turbines Have Negative Externalities for People in Their Surroundings? Evidence from Well-Being Data

    Christian Krekel, Alexander Zerrahn
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Policy and Programme Evaluation Applied Microeconometrics

    Throughout the world, governments foster the deployment of wind power to mitigate negative externalities of conventional technologies, notably CO2 emissions. Wind turbines, however, are not free of externalities themselves, particularly interference with landscape aesthetics. We quantify the negative externalities associated with the presence of wind turbines using the life satisfaction approach. To this end, we combine household data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) with a novel panel dataset on over 20,000 installations. Based on geographical coordinates and construction dates, we establish causality in a difference-in-differences design. Matching techniques drawing on exogenous weather data and geographical locations of residence ensure common trend behaviour. We show that the construction of wind turbines close to households exerts significant negative external effects on residential well-being, although they seem both temporally and spatially limited. Robustness checks, including view shed analyses based on digital terrain models and placebo regressions, confirm our results.

    Key Words
    JEL Codes
    • Externalities
    • Renewable Energy
    • Wind Power
    • Well-Being
    • Life Satisfaction
    • Social Acceptance
    • Spatial Analysis
    • SOEP
    • C23
    • Q42
    • Q51
    • R20
  • Can Raising Instructional Time Crowd Out Student Pro-Social Behaviour? Evidence from Germany

    Christian Krekel
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Policy and Programme Evaluation Applied Microeconometrics

    We study whether raising instructional time can crowd out student pro-social behaviour. To this end, we exploit a large educational reform in Germany that has raised instructional time for high school students as a quasi-natural experiment. We find that, in line with a theoretical model on student time use, this rise has a negative and sizeable effect on volunteering, both at the intensive and at the extensive margin. It also affects political interest. There is no similar crowding out of scholastic involvement, but no substitution either. We conclude that instructional time plays an important role in shaping student pro-social behaviour.

    Key Words
    JEL Codes
    • Instructional Time
    • Student Pro-Social Behaviour
    • Volunteering
    • Scholastic Involvement
    • Political Interest
    • Quasi-Natural Experiment
    • "G8" Reform
    • SOEP
    • I21
    • I28
    • D01
  • The Host with the Most? The Effects of the Olympic Games on Happiness

    Paul H. Dolan, Georgios Kavetsos, Christian Krekel, Dimitris Mavridis, Robert Metcalfe, Claudia Senik, Stefan Szymanski, Nicolas R. Ziebarth
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Policy and Programme Evaluation Applied Microeconometrics

    We show that hosting the Olympic Games in 2012 had a positive impact on the life satisfaction and happiness of Londoners during the Games, compared to residents of Paris and Berlin. Notwithstanding issues of causal inference, the magnitude of the effects is equivalent to moving from the bottom to the fourth income decile. But they do not last very long: the effects are gone within a year. These conclusions are based on a novel panel survey of 26,000 individuals who were interviewed during the summers of 2011, 2012, and 2013, i.e. before, during, and after the event. The results are robust to selection into the survey and to the number of medals won.

    Key Words
    JEL Codes
    • Subjective Well-Being
    • Life Satisfaction
    • Happiness
    • Olympic Games
    • Natural Experiment
    • I30
    • I31
    • I38
    • L83
    • Z20
    • Z28
  • 2015
  • The Effect of Local Crime on Well-Being: Evidence for Germany

    Christian Krekel, Marie L. Poprawe
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Policy and Programme Evaluation

    This paper investigates the effect of local crime on well-being in Germany, using panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and a unique, novel data set constructed from official police crime statistics, covering the time period between 1994 and 2012. It shows that local crime has a sizeable, negative effect on the life satisfaction of residents, makes them worry more often, and makes them worry more about crime in Germany as a whole. This effect is driven by violent crime, while property and other crime have no effects on well-being. Finally, we find only weak effects on mental health.

    Key Words
    JEL Codes
    • Well-Being
    • Life Satisfaction
    • Worries
    • Mental Health
    • Crime
    • SOEP
    • I18
    • I31
    • K42
    • R23

Work in Progress

  • 2016
  • Urban Land Use and Residential Health

    Henry Wuestemann, Jens Kolbe, Christian Krekel
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Applied Microeconometrics
  • Landscape Fragmentation and Residential Well-Being

    Christine Bertram, Jan Goebel, Christian Krekel, Neele Larondelle, Katrin Rehdanz
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Applied Microeconometrics
  • 2015
  • War Experiences, Political Attitudes, and Mental Health

    Christian Krekel, Gert G. Wagner, Christopher Wratil
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Applied Microeconometrics
  • The Effect of the 2015 Greek Referendum on Political Attitudes in Germany

    Christian Krekel, Nico A. Siegel, Gert G. Wagner, Christopher Wratil
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Policy and Programme Evaluation Applied Microeconometrics
  • 2014
  • Natural Disasters and Environmental Concerns: The Case of the 2013 Flood in Germany

    Alexandra Avdeenko, Christian Krekel, Laurine Martinoty
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Policy and Programme Evaluation Applied Microeconometrics
  • 2013
  • Home Alone? The Effects of Children Leaving and Returning Home on Parental Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour

    Christian Krekel
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Applied Microeconometrics

Policy Reports

  • 2015
  • Aircraft Noise in Berlin Affects Quality of Life Even Outside the Airport Grounds

    Peter Eibich, Konstantin Kholodilin, Christian Krekel, Gert G. Wagner
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Applied Microeconometrics

    Aircraft noise is a particularly problematic source of noise as many airports are located in or near major cities and, as a result, densely populated areas are affected. Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (Berliner Altersstudie II, BASE-II), whose socio-economic module is based on the longitudinal Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study which has been conducted since 1984, allows us to examine the effect of different levels of aircraft noise on the subjective wellbeing and health of the older residents of a major city, in this case Berlin. The findings show that the presence of aircraft noise, also measured using objective aircraft noise data, is associated with significantly reduced well-being, lower satisfaction with one’s living environment, and poorer health. The association between well-being and a crossing altitude reduced by 100 meters is given certain assumptions — for crossing altitudes of between 1,000 and 2,500m — comparable to an income loss of between 30 and 117 euros per month.

    Key Words
    JEL Codes
    • Well-Being
    • Health
    • Aircraft Noise
    • BASE-II
    • SOEP
    • I12
    • I31
    • R41

Projects

  • 2016
  • World Bank Project: Can Grit be Taught? Learning from a Field Experiment With Middle Schoolers in FYR Macedonia

    World Bank Social Protection and Labor, and Poverty Global Practices
    Well-Being, Health, and Behaviour Policy and Programme Evaluation Applied Microeconometrics

    Together with a team from the Social Protection and Labor, and Poverty Global Practices, we are designing, implementing, and evaluating a large-scale grit intervention in FYR Macedonia, aimed at promoting a change in grit among middle schoolers to facilitate primary-to-secondary-school transitions through improved school performance and enhanced socio-emotional skills, and influence aspirations and expectations about the future. It is implemented as a multi-arm randomised control trial.

Fellowships, Scholarships, and Awards

2016
FellowCollege for Interdisciplinary Educational Research (CIDER)
2015
Best Poster AwardEuropean Health Economics Association PhD Student-Supervisor Conference
2014
FEEM Award (Young Economist Award)Annual Conference of the European Economic Association
Best Paper AwardCINCH Academy
2011
PhD Studies StipendGerman Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin)
2008
Studies Abroad StipendFriedrich Ebert Foundation
2007
Basic Studies StipendFriedrich Ebert Foundation

Press

2016
Olympia macht glücklich - zumindest in London
(German only)
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
A Bid for the Happiness Olympics
Wall Street Journal
Rio 2016: The high price of Olympic glory
Financial Times
Kurzlebiges Olympia-Glück
(German only)
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
2015
Griechenland-Politik: Wissen schützt nicht vor Euroskepsis
(German only)
Spiegel Online
Grün macht glücklich
(German only)
Capital Online
2014
Fukushima und die Effekte auf die Deutschen
(German only)
rbb kulturradio

Presentations

2016
22nd Annual Conference of the European Association for Environmental and Resource EconomicsZurich, Switzerland
26th Annual Conference of the European Public Choice SocietyFreiburg, Germany
Annual Conference of the Royal Economic SocietyBrighton, United Kingdom
8th Annual Conference of the German Association for Health EconomicsBerlin, Germany
9th Ruhr Graduate School Doctoral Conference in EconomicsBochum, Germany
2015
68th Annual Conference of the Gerontological Society of AmericaOrlando, FL, United States
16th Annual Conference of the German Economic AssociationMuenster, Germany
2nd European Health Economics Association PhD Student-Supervisor ConferenceParis, France
30th Annual Congress of the European Economic AssociationMannheim, Germany
11th World Congress of the Econometric SocietyMontreal, Canada
Understanding Society Scientific Conference 2015Essex, United Kingdom
17th ZEW Summer Workshop for Young EconomistsMannheim, Germany
5th Annual European Political Science Association General ConferenceVienna, Austria
21st Annual Conference of the European Association for Environmental and Resource EconomicsHelsinki, Finland
64th Annual Meeting of the French Economic AssociationRennes, France
20th Spring Meeting of Young EconomistsGent, Belgium
Annual Conference of the Scottish Economic SocietyPerth, United Kingdom
24th Annual Conference of the European Public Choice SocietyGroningen, Netherlands
79th Bi-Annual Conference of the International Atlantic Economic SocietyMilan, Italy
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei Energy and Environment Brown Bag SeminarMilan, Italy
8th Ruhr Graduate School Doctoral Conference in EconomicsEssen, Germany
London School of Economics Political Science and Political Economy Brown Bag SeminarLondon, United Kingdom
2014
67th Annual Conference of the Gerontological Society of AmericaWashington, DC, United States
78th Bi-Annual Conference of the International Atlantic Economic SocietySavannah, GA, United States
12th Annual Conference of the International Society for Quality-of-Life StudiesBerlin, Germany
15th Annual Conference of the German Economic AssociationHamburg, Germany
1st European Health Economics Association PhD Student-Supervisor ConferenceManchester, United Kingdom
29th Annual Conference of the European Economic AssociationToulouse, France
110th Annual Conference of the American Sociological AssociationSan Francisco, CA, United States
DIW Berlin Graduate Center Summer WorkshopPotsdam, Germany
11th International German Socio-Economic Panel User ConferenceBerlin, Germany
1st Annual Conference of the International Association for Applied EconometricsLondon, United Kingdom
28th Annual Conference of the European Society for Population EconomicsBraga, Portugal
3rd Spatial Econometrics and Regional Economic Analysis ConferenceLodz, Poland
University of Oldenburg Doctoral Seminar – “Energy, Environment, and Well-Being”Delmenhorst, Germany
CINCH Academy 2014Essen, Germany
University of Hamburg Doctoral Seminar – “Empirische Arbeitsmarkt- und Sozialforschung”Hamburg, Germany
Gemeinsame Tagung des Wissenschaftszentrums Berlin und der Sektion Familiensoziologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie – “Aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Familiensoziologie: Theorien, Methoden, Befunde”Berlin, Germany
24th Annual Conference of the European Public Choice SocietyCambridge, United Kingdom
London School of Economics and Political Science Workshop – “Visions for the Future of Behavioural and Happiness Research”London, United Kingdom
10th International Young Scholar German Socio-Economic Panel SymposiumDelmenhorst, Germany
7th Ruhr Graduate School Doctoral Conference in EconomicsDortmund, Germany
2013
Youth and Adulthood - Transitions in the 2nd and 3rd Stages of Life ConferenceBasel, Switzerland
OECD Conference on New Directions in Well-BeingParis, France
DIW Berlin Graduate Center Summer WorkshopPotsdam, Germany
DIW Berlin Cluster Seminar - "Public Finances and Living Conditions”Berlin, Germany
HEIRs Conference on Public HappinessRome, Italy

Contact

Name Christian Krekel
Address Warschauer Straße 69
10243 Berlin
Germany

Mobile +49 151 152 117 61 E-Mail info@christiankrekel.de

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